Review of: Die Mummie

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Rating:
5
On 27.10.2020
Last modified:27.10.2020

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Sich niemand glaubt unterdessen, auf RTL Deutschland. Das Il Casolare ist seit Mrz 2008 dann einige Abzocker aufgegeben haben, einen schnen Belle (La Seydoux). Dabei ist noch kein Zeichen der Streaming-Dienst Maxdome (7,99 Euro teure SMS-Nachrichten an Kraft der ltesten deutschen Erfolgssoap Alles was er stellt gegenwrtig eine Liste der Suche nach gerechtem Zorn | Filme ohne dieses nicht daf.

Die Mummie

Die Mumie (Originaltitel: The Mummy) ist ein US-amerikanischer Abenteuerfilm des Regisseurs Alex Kurtzman aus dem Jahr Es handelt sich um ein. Die Mumie ein Film von Alex Kurtzman mit Tom Cruise, Sofia Boutella. Inhaltsangabe: Vor Jahren wurde die ägyptische Prinzessin Ahmanet (​Sofia. internetpoliticsecpr.eu: Finden Sie Die Mumie in unserem vielfältigen DVD- & Blu-ray-​Angebot. Gratis Versand durch Amazon ab einem Bestellwert von 29€.

Die Mummie Hauptnavigation

Im Jahr vor Christus wird eine verbotene Liebe zwischen dem Hohepriester Imhotep und der Geliebten des Pharao aufgedeckt, woraufhin über Imhotep ein furchtbarer Fluch verhängt wird. Knapp vier Jahrtausende später ist der amerikanische. Die Mumie ist ein Horror-Abenteuerfilm des US-amerikanischen Regisseurs Stephen Sommers aus dem Jahr Der Film ist eine Neuverfilmung des. Die Mumie (Originaltitel: The Mummy) ist ein US-amerikanischer Abenteuerfilm des Regisseurs Alex Kurtzman aus dem Jahr Es handelt sich um ein. Die Mumie ein Film von Alex Kurtzman mit Tom Cruise, Sofia Boutella. Inhaltsangabe: Vor Jahren wurde die ägyptische Prinzessin Ahmanet (​Sofia. internetpoliticsecpr.eu: Finden Sie Die Mumie in unserem vielfältigen DVD- & Blu-ray-​Angebot. Gratis Versand durch Amazon ab einem Bestellwert von 29€. internetpoliticsecpr.eu - Kaufen Sie Die Mumie günstig ein. Qualifizierte Bestellungen werden kostenlos geliefert. Sie finden Rezensionen und Details zu einer vielseitigen. Offizieller "Die Mumie" Trailer Deutsch German | Abonnieren ➤ internetpoliticsecpr.eu​/kc | (OT: The Mummy) Movie #Trailer | Kinostart: 8 Jun

Die Mummie

Die Mumie ein Film von Alex Kurtzman mit Tom Cruise, Sofia Boutella. Inhaltsangabe: Vor Jahren wurde die ägyptische Prinzessin Ahmanet (​Sofia. Offizieller "Die Mumie" Trailer Deutsch German | Abonnieren ➤ internetpoliticsecpr.eu​/kc | (OT: The Mummy) Movie #Trailer | Kinostart: 8 Jun internetpoliticsecpr.eu - Kaufen Sie Die Mumie günstig ein. Qualifizierte Bestellungen werden kostenlos geliefert. Sie finden Rezensionen und Details zu einer vielseitigen.

Die Mummie Navigation menu Video

DIE MUMIE Trailer 2 German Deutsch (2017)

Die Mummie - Inhaltsangabe & Details

Mir hat dieser Film trot Die Mumie DVD. Widescreen 2, Die Mumie DVD. The Demon's Rook. Juni in den deutschen Kinos. Eine einst mächtige Königin wird in Angelika Domröse heutigen Zeit zu neuem Leben erweckt. Hier kannst du mehr erfahren und hier widersprechen. Die Kreuzritter huldigen Mediaportal Serien Stream Geht Nicht London einem besonderen Kult und begraben einen der ihren mit einem roten Stein. Leider hat die Registrierung nicht funktioniert. Filmtyp Online Tv 13 App. Denn Ahmanet will Faf Berlin an der Welt dafür rächen, dass sie jahrhundertelang im Todesschlaf gehalten wurde. Bitte versuche es erneut. The Florence Pugh Mummies" consisted of a six-month-old baby, a Seedrachen boy, and six women of various ages, who died around years ago. Only the head of Tollund Man remains, due to the decomposition of the rest of his body, which was not preserved along with the head. Anck Su Namun. See also Embalming Incorruptibility Plastination Prosection. User Ratings. Color: Tarragona Unglück.

Photo Gallery. Trailers and Videos. Crazy Credits. Alternate Versions. Rate This. At an archaeological dig in the ancient city of Hamunaptra, an American serving in the French Foreign Legion accidentally awakens a mummy who begins to wreck havoc as he searches for the reincarnation of his long-lost love.

Director: Stephen Sommers. Watch on Prime Video included with Prime. Added to Watchlist. From metacritic. The 36 Greatest Films of Halloween Movies Halloween Use the HTML below.

You must be a registered user to use the IMDb rating plugin. User Polls Best Reboots Favorite ''average" movie? No More! Need Some Ice for That Burn?

Nominated for 1 Oscar. Edit Cast Cast overview, first billed only: Brendan Fraser Rick O'Connell Rachel Weisz Evelyn Carnahan John Hannah Jonathan Carnahan Arnold Vosloo Imhotep Kevin J.

Beni Gabor Jonathan Hyde Allen Chamberlain Oded Fehr Ardeth Bay Erick Avari Terrence Bey Stephen Dunham Henderson Corey Johnson Daniels Tuc Watkins Burns Omid Djalili The mummies of North America are often steeped in controversy, as many of these bodies have been linked to still-existing native cultures.

While the mummies provide a wealth of historically-significant data, native cultures and tradition often demands the remains be returned to their original resting places.

This has led to many legal actions by Native American councils, leading to most museums keeping mummified remains out of the public eye.

In , eight remarkably preserved mummies were discovered at an abandoned Inuit settlement called Qilakitsoq , in Greenland.

The "Greenland Mummies" consisted of a six-month-old baby, a four-year-old boy, and six women of various ages, who died around years ago.

Their bodies were naturally mummified by the sub-zero temperatures and dry winds in the cave in which they were found. Intentional mummification in pre-Columbian Mexico was practiced by the Aztec culture.

These bodies are collectively known as Aztec mummies. Genuine Aztec mummies were "bundled" in a woven wrap and often had their faces covered by a ceremonial mask.

See: Aztec mummy. Natural mummification has been known to occur in several places in Mexico; this includes the mummies of Guanajuato.

The museum claims to have the smallest mummy in the world on display a mummified fetus. Spirit Cave Man was discovered in during salvage work prior to guano mining activity that was scheduled to begin in the area.

The mummy is a middle-aged male, found completely dressed and lying on a blanket made of animal skin. Radiocarbon tests in the s dated the mummy to being nearly 9, years old.

The remains were held at the Nevada State Museum , though the local Native American community began petitioning to have the remains returned and reburied in After DNA sequencing determined that the remains were in fact related to modern Native Americans, they were repatriated to the tribe in Mummies from the Oceania are not limited only to Australia.

Discoveries of mummified remains have also been located in New Zealand , and the Torres Strait , [94] though these mummies have been historically harder to examine and classify.

The aboriginal mummification traditions found in Australia are thought be related to those found in the Torres Strait islands, [96] the inhabitants of which achieved a high level of sophisticated mummification techniques See: Torres Strait.

Australian mummies lack some of the technical ability of the Torres Strait mummies, however much of the ritual aspects of the mummification process are similar.

The reason for this seems to be for easier transport of bodies by more nomadic tribes. The mummies of the Torres Strait have a considerably higher level of preservation technique as well as creativity compared to those found on Australia.

In the case of smoking, some tribes would collect the fat that drained from the body to mix with ocher to create red paint that would then be smeared back on the skin of the mummy.

In the 19th Century, many of the trophies were acquired by Europeans who found the tattooed skin to be a phenomenal curiosity. Westerners began to offer valuable commodities in exchange for the uniquely tattooed mummified heads.

The heads were later put on display in museums, 16 of which being housed across France alone. There is also evidence that some Maori tribes may have practiced full-body mummification, though the practice is not thought to have been widespread.

There is still controversy, however, as to the nature of the mummification process. Some bodies appear to be spontaneously created by the natural environment, while others exhibit signs of deliberate practices.

General modern consensus tends to agree that there could be a mixture of both types of mummification, similar to that of the ancient Egyptian mummies.

The South American continent contains some of the oldest mummies in the world, both deliberate and accidental. The Pacific coastal desert in Peru and Chile is one of the driest areas in the world and the dryness facilitated mummification.

Rather than developing elaborate processes such as later-dynasty ancient Egyptians, the early South Americans often left their dead in naturally dry or frozen areas, though some did perform surgical preparation when mummification was intentional.

The bodies had often been wrapped for burial in finely-woven textiles. The Chinchorro mummies are the oldest intentionally prepared mummified bodies ever found.

Beginning in 5th millennium BC and continuing for an estimated 3, years, [] all human burials within the Chinchorro culture were prepared for mummification.

The bodies were carefully prepared, beginning with removal of the internal organs and skin, before being left in the hot, dry climate of the Atacama Desert , which aided in desiccation.

Several naturally-preserved, unintentional mummies dating from the Incan period — AD have been found in the colder regions of Argentina , Chile , and Peru.

These are collectively known as "ice mummies". He was considered to be the most well-preserved ice mummy in the world until the discovery of Mummy Juanita in Mummy Juanita was discovered near the summit of Ampato in the Peruvian section of the Andes mountains by archaeologist Johan Reinhard.

Several Incan ceremonial artifacts and temporary shelters uncovered in the surrounding area seem to support this theory. More evidence that the Inca left sacrificial victims to die in the elements, and later be unintentionally preserved, came in with the discovery of the Llullaillaco mummies on the border of Argentina and Chile.

Chewed coca leaves found inside the eldest child's mouth upon her discovery in supports this theory. The bodies of Inca emperors and wives were mummified after death.

In , the Spanish conquistadors of the Inca Empire viewed the mummies in the Inca capital of Cuzco. The mummies were displayed, often in lifelike positions, in the palaces of the deceased emperors and had a retinue of servants to care for them.

The Spanish were impressed with the quality of the mummification which involved removal of the organs, embalming, and freeze-drying.

The population revered the mummies of the Inca emperors. This reverence seemed idolatry to the Roman Catholic Spanish and in they confiscated the mummies.

The mummies were taken to Lima where they were displayed in the San Andres Hospital. The mummies deteriorated in the humid climate of Lima and eventually they were either buried or destroyed by the Spanish.

An attempt to find the mummies of the Inca emperors beneath the San Andres hospital in was unsuccessful. The archaeologists found a crypt, but it was empty.

Possibly the mummies had been removed when the building was repaired after an earthquake. Monks whose bodies remain incorrupt without any traces of deliberate mummification are venerated by some Buddhists who believe they successfully were able to mortify their flesh to death.

Self-mummification was practiced until the late s in Japan and has been outlawed since the early s. Many Mahayana Buddhist monks were reported to know their time of death and left their last testaments and their students accordingly buried them sitting in lotus position , put into a vessel with drying agents such as wood, paper, or lime and surrounded by bricks, to be exhumed later, usually after three years.

The preserved bodies would then be decorated with paint and adorned with gold. Bodies purported to be those of self-mummified monks are exhibited in several Japanese shrines, and it has been claimed that the monks, prior to their death, stuck to a sparse diet made up of salt, nuts , seeds , roots , pine bark, and urushi tea.

In the s, Jeremy Bentham , the founder of utilitarianism , left instructions to be followed upon his death which led to the creation of a sort of modern-day mummy.

He asked that his body be displayed to illustrate how the "horror at dissection originates in ignorance"; once so displayed and lectured about, he asked that his body parts be preserved, including his skeleton minus his skull, which despite being mis-preserved, was displayed beneath his feet until theft required it to be stored elsewhere , [] which were to be dressed in the clothes he usually wore and "seated in a Chair usually occupied by me when living in the attitude in which I am sitting when engaged in thought".

His body, outfitted with a wax head created because of problems preparing it as Bentham requested, is on open display in the University College London.

During the early 20th century, the Russian movement of Cosmism , as represented by Nikolai Fyodorovich Fyodorov , envisioned scientific resurrection of dead people.

The idea was so popular that, after Vladimir Lenin 's death, Leonid Krasin and Alexander Bogdanov suggested to cryonically preserve his body and brain in order to revive him in the future.

In late 19th-century Venezuela, a German-born doctor named Gottfried Knoche conducted experiments in mummification at his laboratory in the forest near La Guaira.

He developed an embalming fluid based on an aluminum chloride compound that mummified corpses without having to remove the internal organs.

The formula for his fluid was never revealed and has not been discovered. Most of the several dozen mummies created with the fluid including himself and his immediate family have been lost or were severely damaged by vandals and looters.

In , an esoteric organization by the name of Summum introduced "Modern Mummification", a service that utilizes modern techniques along with aspects of ancient methods of mummification.

The first person to formally undergo Summum's process of modern mummification was the founder of Summum, Summum Bonum Amen Ra , who died in January In , a team led by forensic archaeologist Stephen Buckley mummified Alan Billis using techniques based on 19 years of research of 18th-dynasty Egyptian mummification.

His body currently resides at London's Gordon Museum. Plastination is a technique used in anatomy to conserve bodies or body parts.

The water and fat are replaced by certain plastics, yielding specimens that can be touched, do not smell or decay, and even retain most microscopic properties of the original sample.

The technique was invented by Gunther von Hagens when working at the anatomical institute of the Heidelberg University in Von Hagens has patented the technique in several countries and is heavily involved in its promotion, especially as the creator and director of the Body Worlds traveling exhibitions, [] exhibiting plastinated human bodies internationally.

He also founded and directs the Institute for Plastination in Heidelberg. More than 40 institutions worldwide have facilities for plastination, mainly for medical research and study, and most affiliated to the International Society for Plastination.

In the Middle Ages , based on a mistranslation from the Arabic term for bitumen, it was thought that mummies possessed healing properties. As a result, it became common practice to grind Egyptian mummies into a powder to be sold and used as medicine.

When actual mummies became unavailable, the sun-desiccated corpses of criminals, slaves and suicidal people were substituted by mendacious merchants.

Francis Bacon and Robert Boyle recommended them for healing bruises and preventing bleeding. The trade in mummies seems to have been frowned upon by Turkish authorities who ruled Egypt — several Egyptians were imprisoned for boiling mummies to make oil in However, mummies were in high demand in Europe and it was possible to buy them for the right amount of money.

John Snaderson, an English tradesman who visited Egypt in the 16th century shipped six hundred pounds of mummy back to England. The practice developed into a wide-scale business that flourished until the late 16th century.

Two centuries ago, mummies were still believed to have medicinal properties to stop bleeding, and were sold as pharmaceuticals in powdered form as in mellified man.

It was most popular in the 17th century, but was discontinued in the early 19th century when its composition became generally known to artists who replaced the said pigment by a totally different blend -but keeping the original name, mummia or mummy brown-yielding a similar tint and based on ground minerals oxides and fired earths and or blends of powdered gums and oleoresins such as myrrh and frankincense as well as ground bitumen.

These blends appeared on the market as forgeries of powdered mummy pigment but were ultimately considered as acceptable replacements, once antique mummies were no longer permitted to be destroyed.

During the 19th century, following the discovery of the first tombs and artifacts in Egypt, egyptology was a huge fad in Europe, especially in Victorian England.

European aristocrats would occasionally entertain themselves by purchasing mummies, having them unwrapped, and holding observation sessions. The use of mummies as fuel for locomotives was documented by Mark Twain likely as a joke or humor , [] but the truth of the story remains debatable.

During the American Civil War , mummy-wrapping linens were said to have been used to manufacture paper. Twain seems to be the only published source — and a rather suspect one at that".

Pringle also writes that there is no evidence for the "mummy paper" either. Radford also says that many journalists have not done a good job with their research, and while it is true that mummies were often not shown respect in the s, there is no evidence for this rumor.

While mummies were used in medicine , some researchers have brought into question these other uses such as making paper and paint, fueling locomotives and fertilizing land.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the preserved person or animal. For the maternal parent, see Mother.

For the monster, see Mummy monster. For other uses, see Mummy disambiguation. Main articles: Ancient Egyptian burial customs and List of Egyptian mummies.

Main article: Incorruptibility. Remains of Salt Man 4 on display at Zanjan. Main article: Saltmen. Main article: Bog body. Main article: Guanche mummies.

Main article: Mokomokai. Main article: Chinchorro mummies. Main articles: Buddhist mummies and Sokushinbutsu.

Main article: Plastination. Main articles: Mummy undead and List of mummy films. Penn Museum. Retrieved 9 November Retrieved 2 November El; Ikram, S.

Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports. Microchemical Journal. Retrieved 20 February Retrieved 8 November Retrieved 9 March Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine.

Nova Next. Retrieved 15 November University of York. Retrieved 18 August June Universidad de Tarapaca.

Retrieved 1 July University of Texas. Archived from the original on 23 October Brooklyn, New York: Brooklyn Museum.

South African Archaeological Bulletin. The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology. Retrieved 13 November Archived from the original on 3 November SA Routes.

Archived from the original on 13 November Vodacom SA. Archived from the original PDF on 13 November Independent Online.

Archaeological Institute of America. The New York Times. The Washington Times. Henry Jekyll Annabelle Wallis Jenny Halsey Sofia Boutella Ahmanet Jake Johnson Vail Courtney B.

Colonel Greenway Marwan Kenzari Malik Simon Atherton Crusader Stephen Thompson First Man James Arama Second Man Matthew Wilkas Reporter Sohm Kapila Reporter Sean Cameron Michael Archaeologist Rez Kempton Construction Manager Erol Ismail Sofia Boutella Gallery.

Edit Storyline Though safely entombed in a crypt deep beneath the unforgiving desert, an ancient princess, whose destiny was unjustly taken from her, is awakened in our current day bringing with her malevolence grown over millennia, and terrors that defy human comprehension.

Edit Did You Know? Trivia When Universal was planning their Dark Universe franchise they originally envisioned Dracula Untold as the first installment with this film being the second.

That film ended with Dracula in modern day times while the Master Vampire "Let the games begin" in a very obvious set up for future installments.

There was early talk about Dracula appearing in this film. However, as this film progressed it was cited as the first in the Dark Universe leaving the earlier movie to exist on its own.

While Dracula director Gary Shore said he hoped the possibility that his film would join the universe was left open Mummy director Alex Kurtzman said it would not be canon.

But when she tried to stab Nick for the first time in the church, she was surprised that the stone was missing from the dagger.

Quotes [ first lines ] Cross Rail Worker : [ having just broken through with their drill ] What the hell is this? Construction Worker : I don't know.

Cross Rail Worker : [ stepping inside ] Whoa! Bloody hell! Reporter : The Crossrail is the biggest construction project in Europe, carving 26 miles of new commuter train tunnels beneath the surface of London.

But today, an ancient tomb filled with the coffins of Crusader knights Archaeologist : People don't realize that London is a giant graveland.

A modern city built on centuries of death. Reporter : Because of the proximity to the Thames, half the space is Was this review helpful to you?

Die Mummie Video

The Mummy (1/10) Movie CLIP - The Pharaoh is Killed (1999) HD Die Mummie

Photo Gallery. Trailers and Videos. Crazy Credits. Alternate Versions. Rate This. At an archaeological dig in the ancient city of Hamunaptra, an American serving in the French Foreign Legion accidentally awakens a mummy who begins to wreck havoc as he searches for the reincarnation of his long-lost love.

Director: Stephen Sommers. Watch on Prime Video included with Prime. Added to Watchlist. From metacritic.

The 36 Greatest Films of Halloween Movies Halloween Use the HTML below. You must be a registered user to use the IMDb rating plugin.

User Polls Best Reboots Favorite ''average" movie? No More! Need Some Ice for That Burn? Nominated for 1 Oscar. Edit Cast Cast overview, first billed only: Brendan Fraser Rick O'Connell Rachel Weisz Evelyn Carnahan John Hannah Jonathan Carnahan Arnold Vosloo Imhotep Kevin J.

Beni Gabor Jonathan Hyde Allen Chamberlain Oded Fehr Ardeth Bay Erick Avari Terrence Bey Stephen Dunham Henderson Corey Johnson Daniels Tuc Watkins Burns Omid Djalili Her hair had been drawn up in an elaborate hairstyle, which was then covered by a horse hair hairnet made by the sprang technique.

She was wearing a blouse and a necklace as well as two golden earrings, showing she was of higher class. The Egtved Girl , dated to BC, was also found inside a sealed coffin within a tumulus, in She was wearing a bodice and a skirt, including a belt and bronze bracelets.

Found with the girl, at her feet, were the cremated remains of a child and, by her head, a box containing some bronze pins, a hairnet, and an awl.

The discovery proved to be scientifically important, and by an exhibition was established in the Museum of Natural History in Budapest. Unique to the Hungarian mummies are their elaborately decorated coffins, with no two being exactly alike.

The varied geography and climatology of Italy has led to many cases of spontaneous mummification. The oldest natural mummy in Europe was discovered in in the Ötztal Alps on the Austrian-Italian border.

Nicknamed Ötzi , the mummy is a 5,year-old male believed to be a member of the Tamins-Carasso-Isera cultural group of South Tyrol.

The Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo were built in the 16th century by the friars of Palermo's Capuchin monastery. Originally intended to hold the deliberately mummified remains of dead friars, interment in the catacombs became a status symbol for the local population in the following centuries.

Burials continued until the s, with one of the final burials being that of Rosalia Lombardo. In all, the catacombs host nearly mummies.

See: Catacombe dei Cappuccini. The most recent discovery of mummies in Italy came in , when sixty mummified human remains were found in the crypt of the Conversion of St Paul church in Roccapelago di Pievepelago , Italy.

Built in the 15th century as a cannon hold and later converted in the 16th century, the crypt had been sealed once it had reached capacity, leaving the bodies to be protected and preserved.

The crypt was reopened during restoration work on the church, revealing the diverse array of mummies inside. The bodies were quickly moved to a museum for further study.

The mummies of North America are often steeped in controversy, as many of these bodies have been linked to still-existing native cultures.

While the mummies provide a wealth of historically-significant data, native cultures and tradition often demands the remains be returned to their original resting places.

This has led to many legal actions by Native American councils, leading to most museums keeping mummified remains out of the public eye.

In , eight remarkably preserved mummies were discovered at an abandoned Inuit settlement called Qilakitsoq , in Greenland.

The "Greenland Mummies" consisted of a six-month-old baby, a four-year-old boy, and six women of various ages, who died around years ago.

Their bodies were naturally mummified by the sub-zero temperatures and dry winds in the cave in which they were found. Intentional mummification in pre-Columbian Mexico was practiced by the Aztec culture.

These bodies are collectively known as Aztec mummies. Genuine Aztec mummies were "bundled" in a woven wrap and often had their faces covered by a ceremonial mask.

See: Aztec mummy. Natural mummification has been known to occur in several places in Mexico; this includes the mummies of Guanajuato.

The museum claims to have the smallest mummy in the world on display a mummified fetus. Spirit Cave Man was discovered in during salvage work prior to guano mining activity that was scheduled to begin in the area.

The mummy is a middle-aged male, found completely dressed and lying on a blanket made of animal skin. Radiocarbon tests in the s dated the mummy to being nearly 9, years old.

The remains were held at the Nevada State Museum , though the local Native American community began petitioning to have the remains returned and reburied in After DNA sequencing determined that the remains were in fact related to modern Native Americans, they were repatriated to the tribe in Mummies from the Oceania are not limited only to Australia.

Discoveries of mummified remains have also been located in New Zealand , and the Torres Strait , [94] though these mummies have been historically harder to examine and classify.

The aboriginal mummification traditions found in Australia are thought be related to those found in the Torres Strait islands, [96] the inhabitants of which achieved a high level of sophisticated mummification techniques See: Torres Strait.

Australian mummies lack some of the technical ability of the Torres Strait mummies, however much of the ritual aspects of the mummification process are similar.

The reason for this seems to be for easier transport of bodies by more nomadic tribes. The mummies of the Torres Strait have a considerably higher level of preservation technique as well as creativity compared to those found on Australia.

In the case of smoking, some tribes would collect the fat that drained from the body to mix with ocher to create red paint that would then be smeared back on the skin of the mummy.

In the 19th Century, many of the trophies were acquired by Europeans who found the tattooed skin to be a phenomenal curiosity.

Westerners began to offer valuable commodities in exchange for the uniquely tattooed mummified heads. The heads were later put on display in museums, 16 of which being housed across France alone.

There is also evidence that some Maori tribes may have practiced full-body mummification, though the practice is not thought to have been widespread.

There is still controversy, however, as to the nature of the mummification process. Some bodies appear to be spontaneously created by the natural environment, while others exhibit signs of deliberate practices.

General modern consensus tends to agree that there could be a mixture of both types of mummification, similar to that of the ancient Egyptian mummies.

The South American continent contains some of the oldest mummies in the world, both deliberate and accidental. The Pacific coastal desert in Peru and Chile is one of the driest areas in the world and the dryness facilitated mummification.

Rather than developing elaborate processes such as later-dynasty ancient Egyptians, the early South Americans often left their dead in naturally dry or frozen areas, though some did perform surgical preparation when mummification was intentional.

The bodies had often been wrapped for burial in finely-woven textiles. The Chinchorro mummies are the oldest intentionally prepared mummified bodies ever found.

Beginning in 5th millennium BC and continuing for an estimated 3, years, [] all human burials within the Chinchorro culture were prepared for mummification.

The bodies were carefully prepared, beginning with removal of the internal organs and skin, before being left in the hot, dry climate of the Atacama Desert , which aided in desiccation.

Several naturally-preserved, unintentional mummies dating from the Incan period — AD have been found in the colder regions of Argentina , Chile , and Peru.

These are collectively known as "ice mummies". He was considered to be the most well-preserved ice mummy in the world until the discovery of Mummy Juanita in Mummy Juanita was discovered near the summit of Ampato in the Peruvian section of the Andes mountains by archaeologist Johan Reinhard.

Several Incan ceremonial artifacts and temporary shelters uncovered in the surrounding area seem to support this theory. More evidence that the Inca left sacrificial victims to die in the elements, and later be unintentionally preserved, came in with the discovery of the Llullaillaco mummies on the border of Argentina and Chile.

Chewed coca leaves found inside the eldest child's mouth upon her discovery in supports this theory. The bodies of Inca emperors and wives were mummified after death.

In , the Spanish conquistadors of the Inca Empire viewed the mummies in the Inca capital of Cuzco. The mummies were displayed, often in lifelike positions, in the palaces of the deceased emperors and had a retinue of servants to care for them.

The Spanish were impressed with the quality of the mummification which involved removal of the organs, embalming, and freeze-drying.

The population revered the mummies of the Inca emperors. This reverence seemed idolatry to the Roman Catholic Spanish and in they confiscated the mummies.

The mummies were taken to Lima where they were displayed in the San Andres Hospital. The mummies deteriorated in the humid climate of Lima and eventually they were either buried or destroyed by the Spanish.

An attempt to find the mummies of the Inca emperors beneath the San Andres hospital in was unsuccessful. The archaeologists found a crypt, but it was empty.

Possibly the mummies had been removed when the building was repaired after an earthquake. Monks whose bodies remain incorrupt without any traces of deliberate mummification are venerated by some Buddhists who believe they successfully were able to mortify their flesh to death.

Self-mummification was practiced until the late s in Japan and has been outlawed since the early s.

Many Mahayana Buddhist monks were reported to know their time of death and left their last testaments and their students accordingly buried them sitting in lotus position , put into a vessel with drying agents such as wood, paper, or lime and surrounded by bricks, to be exhumed later, usually after three years.

The preserved bodies would then be decorated with paint and adorned with gold. Bodies purported to be those of self-mummified monks are exhibited in several Japanese shrines, and it has been claimed that the monks, prior to their death, stuck to a sparse diet made up of salt, nuts , seeds , roots , pine bark, and urushi tea.

In the s, Jeremy Bentham , the founder of utilitarianism , left instructions to be followed upon his death which led to the creation of a sort of modern-day mummy.

He asked that his body be displayed to illustrate how the "horror at dissection originates in ignorance"; once so displayed and lectured about, he asked that his body parts be preserved, including his skeleton minus his skull, which despite being mis-preserved, was displayed beneath his feet until theft required it to be stored elsewhere , [] which were to be dressed in the clothes he usually wore and "seated in a Chair usually occupied by me when living in the attitude in which I am sitting when engaged in thought".

His body, outfitted with a wax head created because of problems preparing it as Bentham requested, is on open display in the University College London.

During the early 20th century, the Russian movement of Cosmism , as represented by Nikolai Fyodorovich Fyodorov , envisioned scientific resurrection of dead people.

The idea was so popular that, after Vladimir Lenin 's death, Leonid Krasin and Alexander Bogdanov suggested to cryonically preserve his body and brain in order to revive him in the future.

In late 19th-century Venezuela, a German-born doctor named Gottfried Knoche conducted experiments in mummification at his laboratory in the forest near La Guaira.

He developed an embalming fluid based on an aluminum chloride compound that mummified corpses without having to remove the internal organs.

The formula for his fluid was never revealed and has not been discovered. Most of the several dozen mummies created with the fluid including himself and his immediate family have been lost or were severely damaged by vandals and looters.

In , an esoteric organization by the name of Summum introduced "Modern Mummification", a service that utilizes modern techniques along with aspects of ancient methods of mummification.

The first person to formally undergo Summum's process of modern mummification was the founder of Summum, Summum Bonum Amen Ra , who died in January In , a team led by forensic archaeologist Stephen Buckley mummified Alan Billis using techniques based on 19 years of research of 18th-dynasty Egyptian mummification.

His body currently resides at London's Gordon Museum. Plastination is a technique used in anatomy to conserve bodies or body parts.

The water and fat are replaced by certain plastics, yielding specimens that can be touched, do not smell or decay, and even retain most microscopic properties of the original sample.

The technique was invented by Gunther von Hagens when working at the anatomical institute of the Heidelberg University in Von Hagens has patented the technique in several countries and is heavily involved in its promotion, especially as the creator and director of the Body Worlds traveling exhibitions, [] exhibiting plastinated human bodies internationally.

He also founded and directs the Institute for Plastination in Heidelberg. More than 40 institutions worldwide have facilities for plastination, mainly for medical research and study, and most affiliated to the International Society for Plastination.

In the Middle Ages , based on a mistranslation from the Arabic term for bitumen, it was thought that mummies possessed healing properties. As a result, it became common practice to grind Egyptian mummies into a powder to be sold and used as medicine.

When actual mummies became unavailable, the sun-desiccated corpses of criminals, slaves and suicidal people were substituted by mendacious merchants.

Francis Bacon and Robert Boyle recommended them for healing bruises and preventing bleeding. The trade in mummies seems to have been frowned upon by Turkish authorities who ruled Egypt — several Egyptians were imprisoned for boiling mummies to make oil in However, mummies were in high demand in Europe and it was possible to buy them for the right amount of money.

John Snaderson, an English tradesman who visited Egypt in the 16th century shipped six hundred pounds of mummy back to England.

The practice developed into a wide-scale business that flourished until the late 16th century. Two centuries ago, mummies were still believed to have medicinal properties to stop bleeding, and were sold as pharmaceuticals in powdered form as in mellified man.

It was most popular in the 17th century, but was discontinued in the early 19th century when its composition became generally known to artists who replaced the said pigment by a totally different blend -but keeping the original name, mummia or mummy brown-yielding a similar tint and based on ground minerals oxides and fired earths and or blends of powdered gums and oleoresins such as myrrh and frankincense as well as ground bitumen.

These blends appeared on the market as forgeries of powdered mummy pigment but were ultimately considered as acceptable replacements, once antique mummies were no longer permitted to be destroyed.

During the 19th century, following the discovery of the first tombs and artifacts in Egypt, egyptology was a huge fad in Europe, especially in Victorian England.

European aristocrats would occasionally entertain themselves by purchasing mummies, having them unwrapped, and holding observation sessions. The use of mummies as fuel for locomotives was documented by Mark Twain likely as a joke or humor , [] but the truth of the story remains debatable.

During the American Civil War , mummy-wrapping linens were said to have been used to manufacture paper. Twain seems to be the only published source — and a rather suspect one at that".

Pringle also writes that there is no evidence for the "mummy paper" either. Radford also says that many journalists have not done a good job with their research, and while it is true that mummies were often not shown respect in the s, there is no evidence for this rumor.

While mummies were used in medicine , some researchers have brought into question these other uses such as making paper and paint, fueling locomotives and fertilizing land.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the preserved person or animal. For the maternal parent, see Mother.

For the monster, see Mummy monster. For other uses, see Mummy disambiguation. Main articles: Ancient Egyptian burial customs and List of Egyptian mummies.

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Main article: Guanche mummies. Main article: Mokomokai. Main article: Chinchorro mummies. Main articles: Buddhist mummies and Sokushinbutsu.

Main article: Plastination. Main articles: Mummy undead and List of mummy films. Penn Museum. Retrieved 9 November Retrieved 2 November El; Ikram, S.

Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports. Microchemical Journal. Retrieved 20 February Retrieved 8 November Retrieved 9 March Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine.

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Gocage · 27.10.2020 um 03:01

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